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Interleukin 15 ELISA
A Biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE)

Alternative name:

  • IL15

Upregulation of circulating IL-15 by treadmill running in healthy individuals: is IL-15 an endocrine mediator of the beneficial effects of endurance exercise?

The beneficial effects of endurance exercise include insulin-sensitization and reduction of fat mass. Limited knowledge is available about the mechanisms by which endurance exercise exerts the salutary effects. Myokines, cytokines secreted by skeletal muscle, have been recognized as a potential mediator. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived interleukin-15 (IL-15) in improvement of fat-lean body mass composition and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. Yet, previous studies have reported that endurance training does not increase production or secretion of IL-15 in skeletal muscle. Here, we show that in opposition to previous findings, 30-min treadmill running at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate resulted in a significant increase in circulating IL-15 level in untrained healthy young men. These findings suggest that IL-15 might play a role in the systemic anti-obesogenic and insulin-sensitizing effects of endurance exercise, not only as a paracrine and autocrine but also as an endocrine factor.
Tamura Y et al. Endocr J. 2011;58(3):211-5. Epub 2011 Feb 5.

Elevated Plasma Cytokines in Japanese Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Gastroenteritis

Background/Aim: The role of Th2-type cytokines in development of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been largely revealed, whereas research on the pathogenesis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) has not been widely performed. We investigated the possible involvement of Th2-type cytokines in EGE by measuring plasma cytokine concentrations in patients with EGE as well as those with EoE. Methods: 18 patients with EoE, 18 with EGE, and 30 normal volunteers were enrolled in the study. Plasma concentrations of five cytokines (thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-5, IL-13, IL-15, and eotaxin-3) were measured using Milliplex® assays. Clinical characteristics of the patients and plasma cytokine levels were then compared. Results: Higher proportions of patients with EoE and those with EGE showed elevated plasma concentrations of IL-5 and IL-15 as compared to the normal controls. There was also a positive correlation between IL-5 and IL-15, and also with blood eosinophil count. The plasma concentrations of these cytokines tended to be higher in cases with EGE than in those with EoE, though there were overlaps in cytokine levels among the patients and controls. Conclusion: Similar increases in plasma IL-5 and IL-15 were observed in patients with EoE and those with EGE.
Kinoshita Y, et al. Digestion. 2012 Sep 5;86(3):238-243. [Epub ahead of print]
The aim of study was to examine relationship among levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-13, IL-15, TNF-α) and chemokine (IL-8), production of autoantibodies, radiographic progression, and factors describing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 156 RA patients according to ACR criteria, and 55 control subjects were recruited into study. We observed higher levels of IL-15 within RA patients compared to healthy controls. Correlations among cytokine levels and the measures of rheumatoid factors, anti-CCP, measures of disease activity, and radiographic progression were observed. We conclude that IL-15 level in circulation could serve as one of the biomarkers for RA detection.

Sarcopenia, obesity, and natural killer cell immune senescence in aging: Altered cytokine levels as a common mechanism

Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty. A key feature of frailty, sarcopenia is the age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and endurance that characterize even the healthy elderly. Increases in adiposity, particularly in visceral adipose tissue, are almost universal in aging individuals and can contribute to sarcopenia and insulin resistance by increasing levels of inflammatory cytokines known collectively as adipokines. Aging also is associated with declines in adaptive and innate immunity, known as immune senescence, which are risk factors for cancer and all-cause mortality. The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle tissue and declines in aging rodent models. IL-15 inhibits fat deposition and insulin resistance, is anabolic for skeletal muscle in certain situations, and is required for the development and survival of natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. We review the effect that adipokines and myokines have on NK cells, with special emphasis on IL-15. We posit that increased adipokine and decreased IL-15 levels during aging constitute a common mechanism for sarcopenia, obesity, and immune senescence.
Lutz CT, Quinn LS. Aging (Albany NY). 2012 Aug;4(8):535-46.

Interleukin-15 is a major regulator of the cell-microenvironment interactions in human renal homeostasis

Experiments in IL-15(-/-) and IL-15Rα(-/-) mice show that intra-renal IL-15, through IL-15Rα behaves as an epithelial survival factor. Recent data highlight new functions of IL-15 in renal homeostasis mediated by IL-15Rγ (CD132). Indeed, in CD132+ renal epithelial tubular cells IL-15 preserves E-cadherin expression inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). By contrast, during allograft rejection, the increased intra-graft IL-15expression favors tubular destruction facilitating the intraepithelial recruitment of CD8 T cells expressing the E-cadherin ligand CD103. In renal cancer, loss of CD132 by epithelial cells defines a tumoral microenvironment where IL-15 triggers E-cadherin down-regulation and EMT. Finally, in CD132+ renal cancer stem cells IL-15 induces the generation of non-tumorigenic epithelial cells sensitive to cytotoxic drugs. These findings are discussed in the light of IL-15-based immunotherapy for renal cancer.
Giron-Michel J, et al. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2012 Sep 12. pii: S1359-6101(12)00070-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2012.08.006. [Epub ahead of print]
 
 
   
Human IL-15 ELISA Kit
Code No.: SK00298-01
Size: 96 T
Price: $320.00 USD
Standard range:7.8-500 pg/ml
Sensitivity:1.8 pg/ml
Sample Type: serum, plasma, cell cultures
Sample require:100 ul per well
Intra-CV: 4-8%
Inter-CV: 8-10%
Data Sheet: PDF
 

 

Name
Code No.
Size
Price ($)
Interleukin 15 (IL-15) (Human) ELISA Kit SK00298-01 96 T 320.00