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Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1)

A Biomarker for Acute Kidney Injury

  • TIM-1(T cellimmunoglobulin-mucin)
  • HAVCR
BACKGROUND: The prognostic impact of reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in chronic heart failure (CHF) is increasingly recognised, but little is known about tubular damage in these patients.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of tubular damage, and its association with GFR, and prognosis in patients with CHF.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In 90 patients with CHF, GFR and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured ([(125)I]iothalamate and [(131)I]hippuran clearances). The tubular markers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) as well as urinary albumin excretion were determined in 24 h urine collections. Mean GFR was 78+/-26 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Urinary NGAL (175 (70-346) microg/g creatinine (gCr)), NAG (12 (6-17) U/gCr) and KIM-1 (277 (188-537) ng/gCr) levels were increased compared with 20 healthy controls (all p<0.001). Urinary NAG, but not NGAL or KIM-1 correlated with GFR (r=-0.34, p=0.001) and ERPF (r=-0.29, p=0.006). Both NAG (r=0.21, p=0.048) and KIM-1 (r=0.23, p=0.033) correlated with plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels. Both urinary KIM-1 (HR=1.15 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.30) per 100 ng/gCr increase, p=0.025) and NAG (HR=1.42 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.94) per 5 U/gCr increase, p=0.039), were associated with an increased risk of death or heart failure hospitalisations, independent of GFR.
CONCLUSION: Tubular damage, as indicated by increased urinary concentrations of NGAL, NAG and KIM-1 is common in patients with CHF and mildly reduced GFR. Both urinary KIM-1 and NAG showed prognostic information additional to GFR. These findings suggest an important role for tubular damage and tubular markers in cardiorenal interaction in heart failure. Damman K, et al. Heart. 2010 Aug;96(16):1297-302.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The outcome of renal transplantation after an episode of acute rejection is difficult to predict, even with an allograft biopsy. We examined whether urinary expression of specific biomarker mRNA could be used as a noninvasive prognostic marker in kidney transplant recipients.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We studied 63 kidney transplant recipients who require graft biopsy because of progressive worsening of kidney function. The mRNA of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), IL-18, surfactant protein-C, and S100 calcium-binding proteins A8 and A9 in urinary sediment were quantified.
RESULTS: Urinary expressions of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, KIM-1, and IL-18, but not other target genes, were significantly different between histologic groups (P < 0.0001 for all). After followed for an average of 39.7 +/- 21.1 months, the rate of renal function decline significantly correlated with urinary KIM-1 expression (r = -0.434, P = 0.0004) but not other target genes. At 48 months, the graft survival rate for the high and low KIM-1 groups were 46.2 and 78.6%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, each log of higher urinary KIM-1 expression conferred an approximately 2.9-fold higher risk of developing graft failure (95% confidence interval, 1.3- to 6.2-fold; P = 0.006). The result remained similar when only patients with no acute cellular rejection were analyzed.
CONCLUSIONS: In kidney allograft recipients, urinary KIM-1 expression provides prognostic information in relation to the rate of renal function decline, irrespective of the kidney pathology.
Szeto CC, et al. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Jul 29. [Epub ahead of print]
The diagnosis and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) by current clinical means is inadequate. Biomarkers of kidney injury that are easily measured and unaffected by physiological variables could revolutionize the management of AKI. Our objective was to systematically review the diagnostic and prognostic utility of urine and serum biomarkers of AKI in humans. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed and EMBASE databases (January 2000-August 2009) for biomarker studies that could be classified into the following categories: (a) confirmation of the diagnosis of established AKI, (b) early prediction of AKI, and (c) prognostication of AKI. We identified 54 manuscripts published since 2000 that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Urinary interleukin-18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) are potentially useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of established AKI. Urinary NGAL, IL-18, and liver-type fatty acid binding protein, and serum NGAL and cystatin C represent the most promising biomarkers for early prediction of AKI. Urinary cystatin C, alpha1-microglobulin, NAG and retinol-binding protein may be useful to predict severity and outcomes of AKI. In conclusion, we identified several studies of promising biomarkers for the diagnosis, prediction and prognostication of AKI. However, we note several limitations, including small sample sizes, inadequate gold standard, exclusion of patients with chronic kidney disease, incomplete statistical analyses, utilization of research-based assays and a paucity of studies examining prediction for clinical outcomes. Future studies will need to address these limitations in order for further progress to be made.Parikh CR et al. Ann Clin Biochem. 2010 Jul;47(Pt 4):301-12. Epub 2010 May 28.
Improved performance of urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury in the critically ill by stratification for injury duration and baseline renal function
To better understand the diagnostic and predictive performance of urinary biomarkers of kidney injury, we evaluated γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C (CysC), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in a prospective observational study of 529 patients in 2 general intensive care units (ICUs). Comparisons were made using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for diagnosis or prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI), dialysis, or death, and reassessed after patient stratification by baseline renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) and time after renal insult. On ICU entry, no biomarker had an AUC above 0.7 in the diagnosis or prediction of AKI. Several biomarkers (NGAL, CysC, and IL-18) predicted dialysis (AUC over 0.7), and all except KIM-1 predicted death at 7 days (AUC between 0.61 and 0.69). Performance was improved by stratification for eGFR or time or both. With eGFR <60 ml/min, CysC and KIM-1 had AUCs of 0.69 and 0.73, respectively, within 6 h of injury, and between 12 and 36 h, CysC (0.88), NGAL (0.85), and IL-18 (0.94) had utility. With eGFR >60 ml/min, GGT (0.73), CysC (0.68), and NGAL (0.68) had the highest AUCs within 6 h of injury, and between 6 and 12 h, all AUCs except AP were between 0.68 and 0.78. Beyond 12 h, NGAL (0.71) and KIM-1 (0.66) performed best. Thus, the duration of injury and baseline renal function should be considered in evaluating biomarker performance to diagnose AKI.
  Endre ZH, et al. Kidney Int. 2011 Feb 9. [Epub ahead of print]
Name
Code No.
Size
Price (USD)
KIM-1/TIM-1 (Human) ELISA Kit
96 T
460.00
KIM-1/TIM-1 (Rat) ELISA Kit
96 T
460.00
KIM-1/TIM-1 ( Mouse) ELISA Kit
96 T
460.00
Soluble KIM-1/TIM-1 (Human) His Tag
100 ug
360.00
Soluble KIM-1/TIM-1 (Human) Rec (human cells derived)
10 ug
160.00
Soluble KIM-1/TIM-1 (Rat) Rec
100 ug
360.00
Soluble KIM-1/TIM-1 (Mouse) Rec
10 ug
160.00
Anti Soluble KIM-1 (Human) IgG A00186-01-100 100 ug 220.00
Anti Soluble KIM-1 (Rat) IgG A00186-02-100 100 ug 220.00
Anti Soluble KIM-1 (Mouse) IgG A00186-03-100 100 ug 220.00