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Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) ELISA
Hypoxia contributes to the development of fibrosis with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via stimulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and de novo twist expression. Although hypoxemia is associated with increasing levels of surfactant protein D (SP-D) in acute lung injury (ALI), the longitudinal effects of hypoxia on SP-D expression in lung tissue injury/fibrosis have not been fully evaluated. Here, the involvement of hypoxia and SP-D modulation was evaluated in a model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. We also investigated the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia might modulate SP-D expression in alveolar cells, by using a doxycycline (Dox)-dependent HIF-1α expression system. Tissue hypoxia and altered SP-D levels were present in bleomycin-induced fibrotic lesions. Acute hypoxia induced SP-D expression, supported by the finding that Dox-induced expression of HIF-1α increased SP-D expression. In contrast, persistent hypoxia repressed SP-D expression coupled with an EMT phenotype and twist expression. Long-term expression of HIF-1α caused SP-D repression with twist expression. Ectopic twist expression repressed SP-D expression. The longitudinal observation of hypoxia and SP-D levels in ALI in vivo was supported by the finding that HIF-1α expression stabilized by acute hypoxia induced increasing SP-D expression in alveolar cells, whereas persistent hypoxia induced de novo twist expression in these cells, causing repression of SP-D and acquisition of an EMT phenotype. Thus this is the first study to demonstrate the molecular mechanisms, in which SP-D expression under acute and persistent hypoxia in acute lung injury might be differentially modulated by stabilized HIF-1α expression and de novo twist expression.

Sakamoto K,  et al.Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012 Jul 1;303(1):L43-53. Epub 2012 May 4.

The Diagnostic Value of the Interstitial Biomarkers KL-6 and SP-D for the Degree of Fibrosis in Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema

The combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) was reported first in 1990, but it has been comparatively underestimated until recently. Although the diagnostic findings of both emphysematous and fibrotic regions are detectable by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest, the degree of progressive fibrosis, which increases with emphysematous lesions, is difficult to evaluate. In this study, we hypothesized that the biomarkers for pulmonary fibrosis, surfactant protein D (SP-D), and KL-6 would serve as good indicators of fibrotic lesions in CPFE. We recruited 46 patients who had been diagnosed in our hospital with both emphysema and fibrosis by their CT scan image from April 2003 to March 2008. The correlation among their pulmonary function tests, composite physiologic index (CPI), and the serum levels of SP-D and KL-6 was evaluated. We found a correlation between KL-6 and %VC, %TLC, or CPI and between SP-D and %VC or CPI. Interestingly, the combined product of KL-6 and SP-D (KL-6xSP-D) was found to highly correlate with %VC and %TLC or CPI. These results show that both KL-6 and SP-D, and especially the product of SP-D and KL-6, are good indicators of the presence of fibrotic lesions in the lungs of CPFE patients.
Chiba S, et al. Pulm Med. 2012;2012:492960. Epub 2012 Feb 28.

Surfactant protein d deficiency in mice is associated with hyperphagia, altered fat deposition, insulin resistance, and increased basal endotoxemia

Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a host defence lectin of the innate immune system that enhances clearance of pathogens and modulates inflammatory responses. Recently it has been found that systemic SP-D is associated with metabolic disturbances and that SP-D deficient mice are mildly obese. However, the mechanism behind SP-D's role in energy metabolism is not known.Here we report that SP-D deficient mice had significantly higher ad libitum energy intake compared to wild-type mice and unchanged energy expenditure. This resulted in accumulation but also redistribution of fat tissue. Blood pressure was unchanged. The change in energy intake was unrelated to the basal levels of hypothalamic Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) gene expression. Neither short time systemic, nor intracereberoventricular SP-D treatment altered the hypothalamic signalling or body weight accumulation.In ad libitum fed animals, serum leptin, insulin, and glucose were significantly increased in mice deficient in SP-D, and indicative of insulin resistance. However, restricted diets eliminated all metabolic differences except the distribution of body fat. SP-D deficiency was further associated with elevated levels of systemic bacterial lipopolysaccharide.In conclusion, our findings suggest that lack of SP-D mediates modulation of food intake not directly involving hypothalamic regulatory pathways. The resulting accumulation of adipose tissue was associated with insulin resistance. The data suggest SP-D as a regulator of energy intake and body composition and an inhibitor of metabolic endotoxemia. SP-D may play a causal role at the crossroads of inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance.
Stidsen JV, et al. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35066. Epub 2012 Apr 11.
human surfactant protein D elisa kit SK00457-01
   
human surfactant protein d elisa kit sk00457-01 Human Surfactant Protein D ELISA Kit
Code No.: SK00457-01
Size: 96 T
Price: $360.00 USD
Standard range:78-5000 pg/ml
Sensitivity: 30 pg/ml
Sample Type: serum, plasma
Dilution Factor: 4
Intra-CV: 4-6%
Inter-CV: 8-10%
Data Sheet: PDF
mouse surfactant protein d elisa kit sk00457-03 Mouse Surfactant Protein D ELISA Kit
Code No.: SK00457-03
Size: 96 T
Price: $420.00 USD
Standard range:15.6-1000 pg/ml
Sensitivity: 5 pg/ml
Sample Type: serum, plasma
Dilution Factor:
Intra-CV: 4-6%
Inter-CV: 8-10%
Data Sheet: PDF

 

 

Name
Code No.
Size
Price ($)
Surfactant Protein D (Human) ELISA Kit SK00457-01 96 T 360.00
Surfactant Protein D (Mouse) ELISA Kit SK00457-03 96 T 420.00
Surfactant Protein D (Human) , Rec 00457-02-10 10 ug 90.00
Surfactant Protein D (Mouse) , Rec 00457-03-10 10 ug 90.00
Anti Surfactant Protein D (Mouse) IgG A00457-03-50 50 ug 260.00
Anti Surfactant Protein D (Mouse) IgG A00457-04-50 50 ug 160.00