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Human Anterior Rradient Protein 3 (AGR3) / Breast Cancer Membrane Protein 11 (BCMP11)
A Biomarker for Cancer

Anterior Gradient-3: a novel biomarker for ovarian cancer that mediates cisplatin resistance in xenograft models

The Anterior Gradient (AGR) genes AGR2 and AGR3 are part of the Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) family and harbour core thioredoxin folds (CxxS motifs) that have the potential to regulate protein folding and maturation. A number of proteomics and transcriptomics screens in the fields of limb regeneration, cancer cell metastasis, pro-oncogenic oestrogen-signalling, and p53 regulation have identified AGR2 as a novel component of these signalling pathways. Curiously, despite the fact that the AGR2 and AGR3 genes are contiguous on chromosome 7p21.1-3, the AGR3 protein has rarely been identified in such OMICs screens along with AGR2 protein. Therefore there is little information on how AGR3 protein is expressed in normal and diseased states. A panel of three monoclonal antibodies was generated towards AGR3 protein for identifying novel clinical models that can be used to define whether AGR3 protein could play a positive or negative role in human cancer development. One monoclonal antibody wasAGR3-specific and bound a linear epitope that could be defined using both pep-scan and phage-peptide library screening. Using this monoclonal antibody, endogenous AGR3 protein expression was shown to be cytosolic in four human ovarian cancer subtypes; serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous. Mucinous ovarian cancers produced the highest number of AGR3 positive cells. AGR3 expression is coupled to AGR2 expression only in mucinous ovarian cancers, whereas AGR3 and AGR2 expressions are uncoupled in the other three types of ovarian cancer. AGR3 expression in ovarian cancer is independent of oestrogen-receptor expression, which is distinct from the oestrogen-receptor dependent expression of AGR3 in breast cancers. Isogenic cancer cell models were created that over-express AGR3 and these demonstrated that AGR3 mediates cisplatin-resistance in mouse xenografts. These data indicate that AGR3 is over-expressed by a hormone (oestrogen-receptor α)-independent mechanism and identify a novel protein-folding associated pathway that could mediate resistance to DNA-damaging agents in human cancers.
Gray TA, et al. J Immunol Methods. 2012 Apr 30;378(1-2):20-32

Anterior gradient 2 and 3--two prototype androgen-responsive genes transcriptionally upregulated by androgens and by oestrogens in prostate cancer cells

Androgens and oestrogens have been implicated in prostatic carcinogenesis and tumour progression. Although the actions of androgens have been studied extensively, the mechanisms underlying oestrogen signalling in prostate cancer are not fully understood. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of androgens and oestrogens on the expression of anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) and anterior gradient 3 (AGR3), comprising two highly-related genes encoding secretory proteins that are expressed in prostate cancer and one of which (AGR2) has been associated with tumour metastasis. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR and western blot analysis showed androgen induction of AGR2 and AGR3 in three androgen receptor positive cell lines, starting at concentrations of 0.1 nm. Both AGR genes were also transcriptionally activated by ≥ 5 nM oestradiol but not by isotype selective or nonselective oestrogen receptor agonists in DUCaP cells that harbour a high-level of wild-type androgen receptor. A functional androgen receptor but not oestrogen receptor turned out to be required for both androgen and oestrogen regulation. This pattern of androgen and oestrogen regulation was confirmed in VCaP cells and was also observed for FKBP5, a well-characterized androgen-regulated gene. Genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation studies coupled with deep sequencing identified androgen receptor binding sites localized in the distal promoter and intron regions of the AGR2 and AGR3 genes, respectively. The androgen responsiveness of these enhancers was verified by luciferase reporter gene assays and site-directed mutagenesis analysis. Androgen treatment also induced p300 and RNA Pol II recruitment to androgen receptor enhancers of AGR2 and initiated local chromatin remodelling and the formation of RNA Pol II-containing androgen receptor transcription complexes.
Bu H, , et al. FEBS J. 2013 Mar;280(5):1249-66
human AGR3 elisa kit SK00530-01 Human AGR3/BCMP11 ELISA
Code No.:SK00530-01
Size: 96 T
Price: 460.00

Standard range: 39 - 2500 pg/ml
Sensitivity: 4 pg/ml
Sample type: serum, plasma
Sample require: 100 uL per well
Specificity: human AGR3
Inter-CV: 8-12%
Protocol: PDF
Notice: Research use only
human agr3 recombinant from aviscera Human AGR3/BCMP11 Recombinant
Code No.: 00530-01-100
Size: 100 ug
Price: $360.00 USD
Protein ID:NP_789783
Gene ID: NM_176813
MW: 34.7 KD
Tag: His Tag on N-Terminus
Expressed: E. Coli
Purity: 95%
Data Sheet: PDF


Price ($)
96 T
AGR3/BCMP11 (Human) rec.
10 ug
AGR3/BCMP11 (Human) rec.
50 ug
AGR3/BCMP11 (Human) rec.
100 ug
AGR3/BCMP11 (Human) rec... Biotinylated
50 ug
AGR3/BCMP11 (Human) rec... FITC conjugated
50 ug
AGR3/BCMP11 (Human) rec... Cy3 conjugated
50 ug
Anti AGR3/BCMP11 (Human) IgG
100 ug
AntiAGR3/BCMP11(Human) IgG Biotinylated
50 ug